A Comprehensive Review on Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) and Photothermal Therapy (PTT) for Cancer Treatment
Ritesh BHOLE1,Chandrakant BONDE2,Prachi KADAM1,Ravindra WAVWALE1
1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Dr. D Y. Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Maharashtra-India
2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,SPTM, NMIMS Faculty of Pharmacy, Shirpur, Maharashtra-India
DOI : 10.5505/tjo.2020.2400 Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled and abnormal cell growth leading to serious health issues. Although various approaches are available for treating cancer, including chemotherapy, surgery, radiation, and immunotherapy. The severe adverse effects limit the clinical effectiveness of treatment. New cancer treatment strategies include phototherapy, uses light to treat cancer, attracting interest in the oncology research community. There are two types of phototherapy: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and phototherapy (PTT). PDT requires administering the photosensitizing agent and light exposure at a particular wavelength. PTT uses a photothermal agent that activates and kills cancer cells at a longer wavelength of light; hence is less energetic and, therefore, less harmful to other cells and tissues. This treatment is gaining tremendous popularity because of the limited side effects. A significant downside of PDT is that the photosensitizing drug stays in the body for a long time, rendering patients extremely sensitive to light. PDT is useful for the treatment of lining organs as they are reachable to the light source. As PDT is helpful in lining organs, still potential side effects of PDT is seen in the treatment of skin mouth esophagus, lung cancer, etc. therefore PTT is an alternative for cancer treatment. Keywords : Cancer; photodynamic therapy; photosensitizing agent; photothermal agent; photothermal therapy